The Indian Academy of Sciences in 1999 suggested that an Indian scientific mission to the moon be undertaken. In 2000, the Indian Astronautical Society held a meeting to discuss this idea. Based on these recommendations, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) established a National Lunar Mission Task Force. India’s first moon mission, Chandrayaan – 1, launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, on 22 October 2008.
Objectives of Chandrayaan
- Remote sensing at a high resolution of the moon’s surface.
- Provide a three-dimensional Atlas of the Moon (near, far)
- To perform chemical and mineral studies to map the entire lunar surface.
- To determine the impact of a subsatellite upon the lunar surface in preparation for future soft-landing missions.
The mission detected titanium and calcium’s presence and measured iron, aluminum, and magnesium on the moon. After communications with the probe suddenly went down, the Chandrayaan Mission 1 was terminated on 28 August 2009. The search lasted 312 days. This project was estimated to cost Rs. 386 crores or US$60 million.
Chandrayaan 2 Essay in English
Chandrayaan 2 was the second lunar exploration mission, following Chandrayaan 1. The Indian Space Research Organization developed it. Chandrayaan 2, a complex task, represents a technological leap in comparison to ISRO’s primary mission. Chandrayaan 2’s primary goal was to demonstrate soft-landing on the lunar surface and the ability to operate a robot rover on that surface.
Chandrayaan 2, an Indian lunar mission, was created by the Indian Space Research Organization. ISRO launched it to explore the south pole of the celestial body, the moon. The Chandrayaan 2 lunar mission includes the lunar orbiter, ‘Vikram,’ and the lunar Rover (‘Pragyan’). These were all developed in India by ISRO experts.
Chandrayaan 2 aims to enhance our understanding of the celestial bodies, stimulate technological advancement, promote global alliances, and inspire a new generation of scientists and explorers; It is called Chandrayaan 2. India would be the fourth country to soft-land on the lunar surface if it successfully landed on Chandrayaan 2.
The Satish Dhawan Space Center, Andhra Pradesh, was the second launch pad.
It launched the spacecraft on July 22nd, 2019, on its mission to reach the moon. It was established by a GSLV Mark III M1 rocket. The craft reached the moon’s orbit and was successfully landed on August 20, 2019. Maneuvers to position the lander “Vikram” began.
The Lander and the Rover were to land on September 6th, 2019, at 70 degrees south latitude, in the moon’s south polar region. It would conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, roughly equivalent to two weeks on Earth.
The lander veered off its planned trajectory and landed in an area not designated for it. The Vikram lander attempted a second landing attempt. However, the visuals disappeared. ISRO claims that communication with Vikram, the lander, was lost. Data is still being analyzed.
According to an ISRO failure analysis report, the crash was caused by a software bug. RoverIn history Indian Space Research Organization’s Indian Space Research Organization Chandrayaan 2 was one of the most challenging missions ever attempted.
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Based on the searches of an official committee, ISRO’s chairman K.Sivan stated that 98% of the mission had been successful. He was the one who described the final descent earlier as “15 minutes of terror”.
Scientists have criticized K.Sivan’s comments. He stated that it was too soon to make the mission successful at ISRO. It was partly because the main goal of the spacecraft was landing a rover on the lunar surface to collect data. However, this remains unrealized.
If the lander had successfully landed at the exact spot between two large craters, the Rover would have rolled onto the lunar surface to collect data to send back to Earth. It could travel 500m in its 14-day lifetime.
Millions of people would have dreamed of seeing the moon if the Chandrayaan 2 landing on the moon was a success. The mission’s primary goal was to land on the lunar surface softly. India would have been the first to launch a mission to the Moon’s South Pole via Chandrayaan 2. ISRO could attempt a landing with Chandrayaan 3, possibly in the second quarter of 2021.
More on Chandrayaan 2 essay in English, theChandrayaan 2 launched from the same launchpad from Chandrayaan 1 on July 22. The spacecraft used the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk III (GSLV Mk III) instead of the old PSLV rocket.
On September 7, 2019, the spacecraft will land on the moon’s surface. NASA states that the moon’s polar regions have the Solar System’s lowest temperature. It’ll be the first spacecraft to land at the lunar south pole. Exploration of lunar water in the vicinity of the polar area is the primary mission objective.
ISRO also plans to test Pragyan’s lunar rover capabilities. The Rover weighs 27kg and can travel at 1 cm per second. It will continue to perform chemical analysis of soil and send it back to Vikram (the lander), updating the ground station.
The Rover is expected to work for 14 days, but Pragyan may extend its life span by using solar power to keep it up.
ISRO did not allow foreign payloads to be carried this time around, unlike last year. In June 2019, however, it was granted permission to take a small retroreflector laser from NASA. The payloads for the orbiter and lander will be eight, with the Rover carrying only two.
The orbiter will hover over the moon from 100km, performing passive experiments in the same way as it did on Chandrayaan 1.
Chandrayaan 2 successfully entered space. The auto soft-landing will be the most crucial part. India, China, Russia, and the United States will join the Moon club if the spacecraft successfully lands on the moon.
The cost of Chandrayaan 2 was approximately $141 million. It is lower than any Marvel Avenger installment.
Chandrayaan 2 is a spacecraft that also carries a lunar rover and orbiter. It is a big deal, unlike Chandrayaan 1.
Chandrayaan 2 marks the nation’s first use of self-manufactured parts and design vehicles.
This launch is crucial as it marks the 1st Indian space mission being led by two women. Chandrayaan-2’s project director and mission director, respectively, are Muthayya vanitha.
Even if the mission fails, ISRO will still have much to learn from it, which will motivate it to improve in the future. India is the single country to have completed an interplanetary mission.
Mangalyaan, which was launched in 2013, has spent almost four years orbiting Mars. This feat was unprecedented in the history and pride of the agency.
It holds the record for the launch of the most satellites in one mission. Although ISRO is not as financially secure as NASA, its cost-effective and innovative solutions prove its dominance.
ISRO currently ranks 5th in the world with a budget of $1.2 billion. However, it has a fraction of the budget compared to other space agencies.
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Chandrayaan 2 Essay in English 250 Words
Chandrayaan 2, also known as India’s Orbiter–Lander-Rover mission, was launched July 22nd, 2019. India’s 2nd mission to the moon, and the next to Chandrayaan 1.
Chandrayaan 2 was launched at the Satish Dhawan Satellite Center, India. It had a GSLV aboard.
The rocket entered lunar orbit on the 19th of August 2019. The rocket successfully entered lunar orbit on August 19th, 2019. Officials have not been in touch with ISRO since 2006.
ISRO confirmed that all instruments aboard the orbiter were working correctly despite the crash landing of its lander. ISRO announced that the orbiter’s High-Resolution camera captured a September 5th crater close to the lunar South Pole. It was on October 4.
Chandrayaan 1 launched from Sriharikota’s Satish Dhawan Space Centre on 22 October 2008. It was launched using the locally developed Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle-XL rocket. Chandrayaan 1 was built on the Indian meteorological satellite Kalpansat.
The spacecraft entered the lunar orbit successfully on November 8, 2008, and six days later released its Moon Impact Probe (MIP). On the same day, the MIP crashed close to the Shackleton Crater. The Impact Probe crashed so that subsurface lunar soil could have traces of ice analyzed.
It was able to carry 11 payloads from ISRO and other space agencies, including NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency (BAA).
Chandrayaan 1, hovering at just 100 km above the moon’s surface, took many high-resolution photographs of the moon’s topography. It also carried out mineralogical mapping and searched the surface for radioactive elements.
One of the significant accomplishments of the mission was the discovery that there were a lot of water molecules in the moon’s soil. It cost $56 million but provided crucial information about the moon’s surface.